A medical image processing apparatus includes processing circuitry configured to apply a first trained model to input image data to obtain a first output based on the input data, where the input data includes clinical data. The processing circuitry is further configured to apply a second trained model to the input data to obtain a second output based on the input data, where the first trained model and the second trained model have been trained in dependence on a hierarchical relationship between the first output and the second output. The hierarchical relationship includes at least one of: a spatial hierarchy, a temporal hierarchy, an anatomical hierarchy, and a hierarchy of clinical conditions.